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Pediatrics: Class Notes - Introduction - 3 Accounts

3 Necessary Accounts for Research

Register for three accounts that will help you in research -


1. ILLIAD - for interlibrary loans of articles that are not available as full text electronically or in print at LHS. LHS delivery is rapid and you may have your article as soon as 1-2 days!

Sign up at:

You will need your I-Card number, which starts with 28198 or 20111 - you only need to fill out the first page - don't worry about the account information page.



2. RefWorks - the citation management database can be accessed online from anywhere. 

a. Sign-up at:

b. Familiarize yourself with the RefWork's tutorials page at LHS

These tutorials are well worth the time and provide an introduction to the many time-saving features associated with using RefWorks to manage your citations and write your papers using Write-N-Cite.

c. Next, view an introductory video on RefWorks at UIC (this is the first tutorial on the guide)


3. MYNCBI - PubMed's online bibliographic management system and more - use it to save collections, searches, bibliographies....

a. Sign-up at:

 b. Watch the tutorial on MYNCBI  for an Overview




The "Find It @ UIC" Button - How to Access Full-text


1. a. Read about the "Find It @ UIC" button.

The "Find it @ UIC" button only appears if you have entered the database (e.g., PubMed) via the LHS library gateway. This button links you to the electronic full-text of an article if it is available. When you begin your database search via the LHS webpages, look for this icon in your search results! If you are in PubMed and do not see this button, you probably did not enter PubMed through the LHS website.

If the article is not available electronically through the library's subscriptions, you will  be presented with this message - "Article is not available in electronic format." 

To request a scan of a full-text article via interlilbrary loan, scroll down the page to ILLIAD's link "Library of the Health Sciences Chicago and Distance Ed"

The information required to process the interlibrary loan should populate the form automatically if you access ILLIAD from the Distance Ed link. 

Interlibrary loan often takes as little as 1-2 days. A message is sent to your UIC email that your article has arrived. Login to ILLIAD at After logging into ILLIAD, look on the left-sidebar look for the link labelled "Electronically Received Articles."


b. Watch a brief video, in which Rebecca Raszewski demonstrates the ILLIAD registration, the "Find It @ UIC" button, and the interlibrary loan process in the context of a CINAHL database search



What are Boolean Operators?

Boolean Operators are words used in searching databases to control how sets of results are/or are not combined. Boolean Operators include

AND        OR       NOT

The Boolean operator -  AND -  intersects concept sets, returning search results that reflect articles which address both concepts. If AND is used, then any article which addresses only one concept will not be included in the search results.

The Boolean operator  - OR  -  unifies concept sets, returning search results that include articles if at least one concept is present. The Boolean operator  - OR - will always expand search results.

The Boolean operator  - NOT  - will exclude articles if the NOT concept is present - do not use the NOT operator without giving it great thought because it is easy to "throw the baby out with the bath water" - in other words, to inadvertently discard articles you may want to look at because the NOT concept term is incidentally present and mixed in with concepts you do want to retrieve.   


View the following tutorial by the USF Polytechnic Library, which relies on visualizations to introduce simple and complex usage of Boolean Operators:


View Emily Mazure's tutorial, which quickly introduces you to the uses of Boolean Operators in searching:



MEDLINE/PubMed Resources Guide Page

Moving Citations, Creating Collections, Saving Searches


MeSH Tutorial -

Using Filters for PubMed Searching -

Saving COLLECTIONS   (Note, if the Favorites icon does not show on the citation page, use the pull-down menu at Save Items).    

Create Alerts (Save SEARCHES for future use as filters) -

Keyword Searching (Details box, Advanced page)  -

Advanced Search Page -



COLLECTIONS in MYNCBI - create a new collection or move new citations to an existing collection -

  1. Click the MYNCBI link to open to your MYNCBI account page (upper right corner of PubMed page)
  2. Select the search you want from the Recent Activity box
  3. On the search results page that appears, check the citations you want to move (or don't check any to capture the first 1000)
  4. Use the Send To pulldown menu to select Collections > press Add to Collections
  5. Either choose a new collection and give it a new name or use an existing one > then Save
  6. Check out the options on the Managing Collections link.

CREATE ALERT / SAVE SEARCH - to save a search string and schedule e-mail updates -

  1. Select the Search from you MYNCBI home page Recent Activity box
  2. On the search results page, select the CREATE ALERT link (immediately under the search box) > name it  & save it>
  3. Confirm its entry into your MYNCBI saved searches box
  4. Check out the options on the Managing Saved Searches link.

CLIPBOARD - to place selected citations on an 8-hour clipboard associated with your IP address. This Clipboard can be edited, sent on to Collections, moved to RefWorks, or emailed.

  1. Simply select individual citations from the PubMed search results page or to send a large batch of all results (select nothing and the first 500 results will be used)
  2. Click the Send To pulldown menu to select Clipboard > press Add to Clipboard


REFWORKS - transfer citations from MYNCBI or PubMed to Refworks

  1. Open your RefWorks account by signing in at
  2. Either select your citations from the PubMed search results page or the Clipboard
  3. Click the Send To pulldown menu to select FILE > Select MEDLINE format (this is the tagged format recognized by RefWorks*) - note that if you do not select the citations, you may create an enormous file!
  4. After selecting Create File, look for the pop-up asking about opening or saving the "pubmed_result.txt file"
  5. Open & save or save the file directly to your Desktop (you may rename it)
  6. Go to RefWorks and select the REFERENCES pulldown menu and choose IMPORT
  7. When the popup window appears, make sure you have NLM PUBMED (Import filter/Data Source) and PUBMED (Database) and the correct FOLDER in Refworks you want to use (name a new one or use one already there)
  8. Browse your desktop for the save pubmed_result.txt file and Open it > then press IMPORT
  9. Verify your citations made it to the FOLDER you wanted (you don't want to keep them in the LAST IMPORTED folder because it is overwritten each time you do an new import)

 Link to the UIC REFWORKS tutorial and citation management guides!


Simple search for Case Studies

PUBMED (via the UIC LHS Chicago Gateway so that you are connected to all the proxy server identifications needed to access full text)

  • Enter into the PUBMED search box: sepsis AND encephalopathy
  • From the left-column, in the filters section, select "more" under Article Types - when the menu selection popup box appears, deselect everything except Case Reports and press Show
  • Once the menu selection box disappears, click on Case Reports so that a check mark appears next to the term (indicating the activation of this Case Reports filter)
  • Your search results are automatically filtered for those documents that are Case Reports (this is indicated by a reduction in the Results number)


Clinical Queries - Optimizing Searches With Filters

Clinical Queries - CQ is a valuable PubMed search interface that brings specialized filters to aid you in getting the highest levels of evidence for your patient oriented questions. An efficient way to search for answers to clinical questions is to identify when a key point of care resource such as DynaMed or UpToDate last reviewed a topic (and the age of the most central studies on which recommendations are based) and then customize your Clinical Queries search in relationship to that timeframe. 

You can reach Clinical Queries from the PubMed entry page menu. You can simply enter a search string in natural language if you know that your terms will map to MeSH headings as well as keyword terms. If you are in the area of an evolving topic that has not been established in the MeSH vocabulary for a significant period of time, then you may want to make your search string more comprehensive. Once the search results are back, select the type of question (e.g., therapy, diagnosis, etiology, prognosis, clinical prediction guidelines), and whether you want a broad or narrow filter. Note the link to the Haynes search filters at the bottom of the first column results to understand the sensitivity and specificity associated with each of the search filters broad/narrow dimensions. Select the link to the search results at the bottom of the first column to have your search registered in the MYNCBI home recent searches table.


Special Topics - Optimizing Searches With Filters

PubMed has developed topic and subject filters that can enable robust searches in specific topics. These filters are helpful because it is difficult to identify all of the relevant terminology for a search each and every time. Although these filters are a great starting point, please don't assume that you cannot improve them. You can! You can also edit and customize them - adding and subtracting terms strategically for your particular search.

If you run the search using the subset field tag (e.g., survivors AND cancer[sb]), you will not see real underlying search string. To see the pre-fabricated search, select the link for the topic and drill down. The cancer search sting is several pages long!

On the PubMed Special Queries page, take a look at the Healthy People 2020 link. On the Healthy People 2020 Structured Evidence Queries page, select the link for Maternal, Infant, and Child Health.  There are 33 searches on a variety of topics of interest to Pediatricians and Neonatalists.