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Pediatrics: Neonatology

Newborn Images


The National HIV/Aids Clinicians’ Consultation Center offers a Compendium of State HIV Testing Laws, a telephone consultation service that is free of charge, the National Clinician's Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Hotline, and the National Perinatal HIV Consultation and Referral Service.


LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one of the newest additions to the National Library of Medicine's TOXNET system, a Web-based collection of resources covering toxicology, chemical safety, and environmental health.

Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition current issue

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Recommended e-Books

Ballard Scale

The Ballard Scale is a maturational assessment of gestational age. Alternate names are fetal age, Ballard score, or the Dubowitz exam.

Ballard JL, Khoury JC, Wedig K, Wang L, Eilers-Walsman BL, Lipp R. New Ballard Score, expanded to include extremely premature infants. 
J Pediatr. 1991 Sep;119(3):417-23. PubMed PMID: 1880657

Dubowitz L, Ricciw D, Mercuri E. The Dubowitz neurological examination of the full-term newborn. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev.
2005;11(1):52-60. PubMed PMID: 15856443

Neonatal Drug Withdrawal

Chasnoff IJ, Wells AM, McGourty RF, Bailey LK. Validation of the 4P's Plus screen for substance use in pregnancy validation of the 4P's Plus. J Perinatol. 2007 Dec;27(12):744-8. Epub 2007 Sep 6. PubMed PMID: 17805340 

Yonkers KA, Gotman N, Kershaw T, Forray A, Howell HB, Rounsaville BJ. Screening for prenatal substance use: development of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Oct;116(4):827-33. PubMed PMID: 20859145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3103106

Zimmermann-Baer U, Nötzli U, Rentsch K, Bucher HU. Finnegan neonatal abstinence scoring system: normal values for first 3 days and weeks 5-6 in non-addicted infants. Addiction. 2010 Mar;105(3):524-8. PubMed PMID: 20402996

Prenatal Drug Exposure

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Seminal Articles

Kopelman AE. Understanding, avoiding, and resolving end-of-life conflicts in
the NICU. Mt Sinai J Med. 2006 May;73(3):580-6. PubMed PMID: 16758093
Haque KN, Pammi M. Pentoxifylline for treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Oct 5;(10):CD004205. Review. PubMed PMID: 21975745. Alfaleh K, Anabrees J, Bassler D, Al-Kharfi T. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Mar 16;(3):CD005496. Review. PubMed PMID: 21412889. Morgan J, Young L, McGuire W. Delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Mar 16;(3):CD001970. Review. PubMed PMID: 21412877.