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Pediatrics: Scales and Questionnaires

Ballard Scale

The Ballard Scale is a maturational assessment of gestational age. Alternate names are fetal age, Ballard score, or the Dubowitz exam.

Ballard JL, Khoury JC, Wedig K, Wang L, Eilers-Walsman BL, Lipp R. New Ballard Score, expanded to include extremely premature infants. 
J Pediatr. 1991 Sep;119(3):417-23. PubMed PMID: 1880657

Dubowitz L, Ricciw D, Mercuri E. The Dubowitz neurological examination of the full-term newborn. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev.
2005;11(1):52-60. PubMed PMID: 15856443

Neonatal Drug Withdrawal

Chasnoff IJ, Wells AM, McGourty RF, Bailey LK. Validation of the 4P's Plus screen for substance use in pregnancy validation of the 4P's Plus. J Perinatol. 2007 Dec;27(12):744-8. Epub 2007 Sep 6. PubMed PMID: 17805340 

Yonkers KA, Gotman N, Kershaw T, Forray A, Howell HB, Rounsaville BJ. Screening for prenatal substance use: development of the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy scale. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Oct;116(4):827-33. PubMed PMID: 20859145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3103106

Zimmermann-Baer U, Nötzli U, Rentsch K, Bucher HU. Finnegan neonatal abstinence scoring system: normal values for first 3 days and weeks 5-6 in non-addicted infants. Addiction. 2010 Mar;105(3):524-8. PubMed PMID: 20402996

Alcohol Use Disorder

Kelly TM, Donovan JE, Chung T, Bukstein OG, Cornelius JR. Brief screens for detecting alcohol use disorder among 18-20 year old young adults in emergency departments: Comparing AUDIT-C, CRAFFT, RAPS4-QF, FAST, RUFT-Cut, and DSM-IV 2-Item Scale. Addict Behav. 2009 Aug;34(8):668-74. Epub 2009 Apr 2. PubMed PMID:
19398161; This article is free, full text in PubMed. To retrieve it, simply enter the PMID in the PubMed search screen. On the upper right hand of the page you will see a link that says free, full text in PubMed Central.


A Psychosocial Interview for Adolescents


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Emily Gilbert
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Chicago, IL 60612
Subjects: Medicine