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Nursing Experts: Translating the Evidence - Public Health

Guide to Evidence Based Practice and Knowledge Translation for Public Health.

The PICO Model

Defining a clinical question in terms of the specific patient problem aids the searcher in finding clinically relevant evidence in the literature.  The PICO Model is a format to help define your question.

P Patient, Population, or Problem How would I describe a group of patients similar to mine?
I Intervention, Prognostic Factor, or Exposure Which main intervention, prognostic factor, or exposure am I considering?
C Comparison or Intvervention (if appropriate) What is the main alternative to compare with the intervention?
O Outcome you would like to measure or achieve What can I hope to accomplish, measure, improve, or affect?

Online Resources to Explore:

The National Library of Medicine (NLM)

The National Library of Medicine provides not only PubMed and MedlinePlus,
but several other useful resources.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The CDC is also a great source for statistics. 
For more information on this, see the Finding Statistics page.


The World Health Organization (WHO)

WHO | World Health OrganizationWHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health
within the United Nations system.


The Cochrane Collaboration

The Cochrane CollaborationThe Cochrane Collaboration is an international network
known for providing the best possible evidence-based information.


The Joanna Briggs Institute

The Joanna Briggs Institute

The Joanna Briggs Institute is an international collaborative focused on evidence-based healthcare.
EBP Resources contains manuals for evidence synthesis and evidence implementation, along with critical appraisal tools.  
Some content is available to all for free and some requires a subscription/membership.

And More Online Resources to Explore:

Public Health Associations & Organizations

The following public health associations and organizations have a variety of resources available online. 


Evidence-Based Practice Websites


Resources for Practice Guidelines