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Nursing Experts: Translating the Evidence - Acute & Ambulatory Nursing Care

The PICO Model

Defining a clinical question in terms of the specific patient problem aids the searcher in finding clinically relevant evidence in the literature.

The PICO Model is a format to help define your question.

P Patient, Population, or Problem How would I describe a group of patients similar to mine?
I Intervention, Prognostic Factor, or Exposure Which main intervention, prognostic factor, or exposure am I considering?
C Comparison or Intvervention (if appropriate) What is the main alternative to compare with the intervention?
O Outcome you would like to measure or achieve What can I hope to accomplish, measure, improve, or affect?


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publish several journals that may be helpful in your search for evidence.

Publications include:

The CDC is also an excellent resource for statistics on U.S. health.

Cochrane Collaboration

And More Online Resources to Explore:

Associations and Organization for EBP resources

Government Agencies, Departments, & Resources

Open Access Directories and Search Engines

Open access (OA) refers to freely available, digital, online information. Open access scholarly literature is free of charge and often carries less restrictive copyright and licensing barriers than traditionally published works, for both the users and the authors. The following links will allow you to search open access materials available from libraries, governmental resources, etc.

Check with your employer or local medical library about these subscription databases

Your organization may subscribe to one or more of the Nursing Evidence resources:

  • Clinical Key for Nurses
  • JBI EBP Database
  • Lippincott Advisor
  • Nursing Reference Center

Finding Full Text (complete) articles

PubMed contains abstracts of research articles. There are some full text articles available, but not many, and you don't want to bias your evidence search by limiting to only items readily available through PubMed.

How do you get full text articles? Start with your nearest library. If your employer / organization does not have a library:

  • Do you have access to a health or medical library in your community?
  • A larger hospital system in your area may have a library and be able to offer some help
  • Is there a nursing program nearby - at a community college or university? Call the Library to ask if you could use their resources onsite.
  • Ask your local public library if they can obtain articles through interlibrary loan
  • Search for a National Network of Libraries of Medicine Library near you and contact them        

Nursing Management & Leadership Journals