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Primary Sources: Documents--diaries, letters, drawings, and memoirs--created by those who participated in or witnessed the events of the past tell us something that even the best-written article or book cannot convey. These first hand accounts can also include video, interviews, photographs, social media posts (depending on the context)
Secondary Sources: Information is one that was created later by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions you’re researching. For the purposes of a historical research project, secondary sources are generally scholarly books and articles.
Below are some sample citations. All examples are taken from EBSCOHost Databases.
The main scholarly association for academic psychologists in the United States, the American Psychological Association (APA) has developed standardized methods for citing print and electronic sources used in research.
Entries in the reference list are arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author, followed by the initials of the author’s first name. Entries have a hanging indent (second and subsequent lines of citations are indented).
Names: Last name followed by first and middle initials (separated by periods).
Titles: Titles of articles, books and book chapters are in sentence case - capitalize only the first word, proper nouns and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized. Names of periodicals are capitalized headline style (capitalize all words except for prepositions and common conjunctions).
Dates: Use the order: year, month day.
Note: These are only basic examples of the APA style. More detailed information is available through the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) and http://www.apastyle.org/. In addition, a variety of third-party style guides and web sites can provide further assistance.
Always consult your library resources for exact formatting and punctuation guidelines and pay special attention to specific requirements from your instructor.
[Author Last Name], [Author First/Middle Name Initial(s)]. ([Publication Year]). [Title of the article]. [Name of the Journal], [Volume Number]([Issue Number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [https://doi-org.proxy.cc.uic.edu/Digital Object Identifier]
Crainer, S., & Dearlove, D. (2003). Windfall economics. Business Strategy Review, 14(4), 68-72. https://doi-org.proxy.cc.uic.edu/10.1111/j.2003.00288.x
[Author Last Name], [Author First/Middle Name Initial(s)]. ([Publication Year, Month]). [Title of the article]. [Name of the Magazine], [Volume Number]([Issue Number]), [Page number starts]-[ends].
Carter, A., & Holmes, S. (2007, February). Curiously strong teamwork. BusinessWeek, (4023), 90–92.
[Author Last Name], [Author First/Middle Name Initial(s)]. ([Publication Date]). [Title of the article]. [Title of the Newspaper], [Volume Number]([Issue Number]) (if available), [Page number starts]-[ends] (or, if not consecutive) [Page number starts]-[ends] (or, if not consecutive) [Page numbers starts], [ends].
Meichtry, S., Berretta, D., & Colchester, M. (2009, April 8). Italy quake rescue extends to artwork. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition, 253(81), A7.
[Author Last Name], [Author First/Middle Name Initial(s)]. ([Publication Year]). [Title of the chapter]. In [Editor Last Name], [Editor First/Middle Name Initial(s)] ([abbr. contributor’s role as applicable]), [Title of the book] (pp. [Page number starts]-[ends]). [Publisher Name].
Belsky, J. (1992). The research findings on gender issues in aging men and women. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 163–171). Springer Publishing Co.
[Author Last Name], [Author First/Middle Name Initial(s)]. ([Publication Year]). [Title of the e-book]. [Publisher Name]. [Digital Object Identifier] (if available)
Thorbeck, D. (2019). Agricultural landscapes: Seeing rural through design. Routledge.
Published Conference Paper
[Author Last Name], [Author First/Middle Name Initial(s)]. ([Publication Date]). [Title of the conference paper]. [Name of the Conference Proceedings], (pp. [Page number starts]-[ends]). [Publisher Location]: [Publisher Name]. https://doi-org.proxy.cc.uic.edu/[Digital Object Identifier]
Pierson, E., Althoff, T., & Leskovec, J. (2018). Modeling individual cyclic variation in human behavior. Proceedings of the 2018 World Wide Web Conference, (pp. 107–116). Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee. https://doi-org.proxy.cc.uic.edu/10.1145/3178876.3186052
[Organization Name] or [Author Last Name], [Author First/Middle Name]. ([Publication Date or n.d. if date is not listed]). [Title of the website]. [URL]
IBM. (n.d.). Energy and environment. https://www.ibm.com/ibm/green/
Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL):The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out-of-class instruction.
APA Style Blog:The APA Style blog is the official companion to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition. It’s run by the APA Style team—a group of style experts who work with APA Style every day. We regularly publish posts to talk about what we love—writing, publishing, and APA Style.
Research is a conversation in which you engage with, interpret, synthesize and challenge different sources, ultimately adding your own voice to the conversation. The web is full of different source types that contribute different perspectives to the conversation, some more scholarly than others. Take a look at your assigned source, and answer the following question as it relates to the topic below.
Question: Which of these sources is appropriate to use in research? Why?
Topic: To what extent has gentrification impacted Latino communities in Chicago?
Be prepared to share with the rest of the class.