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History of Pronouns: Subject Resources

Find studies exploring pronouns in across subject areas

Education Resources


Educators investigate the use of gendering and misgendering language in the classroom. A sample search shows studies of the ways pronouns can make a classroom more inclusive and foster learning for all.

History Resources

History Resources

Historians use primary documents to trace the development of social movements around language change. One example is the guide below, created during the 1970s to promote gender-neutral language as part of the campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment. Source: ERA Illinois records, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois Chicago, box 14, folder 157.

LGBTQ+ Studies Resources

LGBTQ+ Studies

Scholars of LGBTQ+ life use use methods and frameworks from a range of disciplines. A sample search shows studies of how pronouns, including neopronouns, operate in diverse communities.

Linguistics Resources


Scholars of linguistic analyze how pronouns work across languages, including their grammatical function (syntax) and political meanings (semantics). A sample search shows a long history of studies of the use of "he" to represent all genders and the singular "they," among many other topics.

Religious Studies Resources

Religious Studies

Scholars of religion examine gendered language, including pronouns, in sacred scriptures and in faith communities. A sample search shows a range of perspectives on pronouns used for God and members of the community.

Sociology Resources


Sociologists or sociolinguists investigate how language is used in social settings. A sample search shows a multitude of studies about how the movement toward inclusive pronouns and the backlash to it affects society.