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Foundations of Clinical Medicine-1: Citation Guide

This guide organizes information for use for each of the cases for the M1 FCM course in Urbana.

Citing Sources

It is necessary to include citations for all the sources you referred to in your handout.  It is not important that you cite in a specific style or have each punctuation mark in the proper place, but you do need to provide enough information that a colleague without extensive research experience can easily find your source.  In many library resources, you can copy and paste a citation directly from the source, which if fine to use for your handout.

Medical literature most frequently uses AMA Style to cite sources.  Examples of AMA references are below. 

If you are interested in more resources about citing sources, see UIC Library's General Style Guide Help or the AMA Manual of Style.

For information on citation management with RefWorks (free from the library), EndNote, or another tool such as Mendeley, see the library's guide to RefWorks and other Citation Management Tools.

Examples of References in AMA Format


Entire book
Modlin J, Jenkins P. Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004:10-12.

Chapter in book
Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.

Chapter in an E-book
Resnick NM. Geriatric medicine. In: Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Isselbacher KJ, et al, eds. Harrison's Online. Based on: Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001. Accessed December 6, 2005.


Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. Accessed June 1, 2004.

Web pages

Interim guidance about avian influenza A (H5N1) for US citizens living abroad. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Updated November 18, 2005. Accessed December 6, 2005.

Personal Communication

AMA does not include personal communication in it citation list.  If you use personal communication, cite in text as:

In a conversation with A. B. Smith, MD (September 12, 2013)....

Alternatively, you can cite in a different format, such as MLA: 

Albert Smith, discussion with author, September 12, 2013.


National Cancer Institute.  Permanent Colostomy Illustration; 2001.  Available at  Accessed July 14, 2016.


Smith, R.  Biochemistry lecture on Proteins at the University of Illinois College of Medicine.  August 21 2013.

AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition

The 10th edition of the American Medical Association Manual of Style online contains everything medical and scientific researchers, writers, and editors need to produce well-organized, clear, readable, and authoritative manuscripts. 

UIC has access to the full online manual.  With this interactive edition, users can annotate their online manuals, bookmark, prepare style sheets, and save searches. The next edition is planned for 2017.

This resource was acquired with funds from the Library/IT Assessment.

Bad Citation Examples

How not to cite information:

“Hemorrhoids”. 2005. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons.

What type of resource is this?  If it is a website, include the URL.  Also, specify what date it was accessed, so that we know the moment in time the information was gathered, in case the URL changes or content is updated.

McGraw M. July 2012. Beer potomania: Drink in this atypical cause of hyponatremia. Nursing. 42(7): 24-30 (last accessed 17 February 2016 at (truncated)

Use a permanent URL, which is usually on the webpage itself.  The URL in the browser bar is often dynamic and cannot be reused.

Boron, W. and Emile L. Boulpaep. “Medical Physiology.” Saunders Elsevier. 2009.

Did you refer to the entire content of the book?  If not, specify the page numbers for the specific material you cite so the reader doesn't have to read the entire book.

Lectures from Dr. Polk and Dr. Williams

What were the topics of these lectures?  Where were the lectures held?  What were the dates?  The reader needs enough information to find the lecturer and get information from them.

"Angina (Chest Pain)"; Angina (Chest Pain). N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.

This citation does not provide you with any information that can help you identify the source--you should include the URL and the source of the information (who wrote it).